Exploring Jinnah & Iqbal By: Muhammad Arif - Articles Detail
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Exploring Jinnah & Iqbal  Back
By: Muhammad Arif
Elections in Pakistan are in hand. These elections would be the first in 64 year's history after completion of 5 years tenure of any civilian government. This is the defeat of forces of status quo in Pakistan. Who so ever now comes after election is of no matter as the process has now moved one step forward and this is the positive signs for the people of Pakistan.
Today's prime issues are energy crisis and law and order situation with Taliban as one of the factor of destruction in command. But with moving process these issues would be addressed. At least people of Pakistan are coming on one page in spite of the fact that political parties in lead are still in confusion. Some are confused on Taliban issue and some are confused on how to deliver.
The question is why this situation has arrived. Why dreams and statements of architect of Pakistan i.e. Iqbal and Jinnah have been set aside. The simple answer is due to despotic systems either in shape of military dictatorship or in cover of some kind of democracy. After assassination of Jinnah ( I would call it an assignation when he received no treatment or attention in his last days) and Liauqat Ali Khan the, whole system went in to the custody of bureaucrats. First Civil bureaucrats in shape of Ghulam Muhammad and Sikander Mirza remained in power with military behind them. Than onward, 1958 military out rightly came in front and started different experiments like bringing basic democracy, Rigged elections, calling referendum  with a question that whether people of Pakistan want Islam or nor not. Than on affirmation interpreted that if people want Islam than it means that I am your ruler. The same circus continued in Musharaf era when he brought peace by allowing US to enter Afghanistan, handed over Pakistani soil (bases) to USA and finally handing over Swat and Waziristan to Taliban who brought down Pakistani flag and hoisted their own flags. The result started coming in 2007 onward with full country in hostage to these terrorist groups who have their own Islam and mandate to implement.
Now it could be understood that by changing concept of Pakistan we brought all these catastrophes. Pakistan's concept was very simple and was in line with aspirations of Muslims in India. They wanted a separate country where Muslims were in majority. But this did not mean that Pakistan would be a Islamic country. Obviously it would be a Muslim dominated country but it would also have other religious groups as well in minority. If it would have been a Muslim Country from its start than why Moulana Mawdoodi of Jamat Islami and Devbund with Moulana Azad opposed Pakistan. They had an argument that being Muslim we don't need a separate country as Muslims in India has a vast population and they can fight for their existence within India. They believed in concept of Muslim Ummah in the whole world including India. They did not believe in Muslims confined in some boundaries.
Jinnah's concept was different from this. He wanted a land in India where Muslims in majority can prosper without going in to some friction as they did have in India. This was the reason that in his first address to the legislative assembly Quide Aazam  spoke with following words:-
" We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community, because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on, and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vashnavas, Khatris, also Bengalis, Madrasis and so on, will vanish. Indeed if you ask me, this has been the biggest hindrance in the way of India to attain the freedom and independence and but for this we would have been free people long long ago. No power can hold another nation and specially a nation of 400 million souls in subjection; nobody could have conquered you, and even if it had happened, nobody could have continued its hold on you for any length of time, but for this. Therefore, we must learn a lesson from this. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State. As you know, history shows that in England, conditions, some time ago, were much worse than those prevailing in India today. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days where there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. The people of England in course of time had to face the realities of the situation and had to discharge the responsibilities and burdens placed upon them by the government of their country and they went through that fire step by step. Today, you might say with justice that Roman Catholics and Protestants do not exist; what exists now is that every man is a citizen, an equal citizen of Great Britain and they are all members of the Nation.
Now I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State.
Well, gentlemen, I do not wish to take up any more of your time and thank you again for the honor you have done to me. I shall always be guided by the principles of justice and fairplay without any, as is put in the political language, prejudice or ill-will, in other words, partiality or favoritism. My guiding principle will be justice"
Before that Allama Iqbal in a letter to Jinnah emphasized on creation of a Islamic Socialist State (Now that concept is in vogue in Iran) in reply to Nehru's concept of a Socialist India. To him this would have been the reply to Marxist socialism that propagates on creation of a Social welfare state. He strongly held that Islam do have all these qualities, He was strongly against theocracy, Khankaiat, Sufism, and Papaiat (rule of pope). Secondly in his famous book Reconstruction of Islamic thoughts he mainly emphasized on Ijtihadi Islam and opposed Taqlidi Islam meaning that the Islamic way of system and State structure should not be based upon what we get from our ancestors but it should remain under change keeping principles given by Quran and Hazrat Muhammad (PBU) intact through Ijtihad (consensus) by consulting knowledge from where it comes. Allama Iqbal thoughts are eye openers for every one and especially for media who does not involve itself in such debates and call two or three fighting cocks on political programs with point scoring and allegations for nothing. I remember that In Bhutto period Faiz Ahmed Faiz started a discussion on TV about Pakistani nationalism. Now those serious efforts are not available in spite of media boom.
Now by setting aside Jinnah's and Iqbal concept of Pakistan not only we lost one part of our country, Siachen, Kargil but have turned Pakistan in to a Security State rather than a Welfare State.
It is on record that followers of Taqlidi Islam (Jamat Islami or likewise parties) have never been successful in getting public mandate in any elections that's why onward 1980's Taliban force was planted by collecting people from GCC countries Chechnya or other States. Criminals in Pakistan also joined this group for their own ends. They are now in operation to implement their own Islam through barrel of gun or through beheading humans. So practically now the armed people are in command to implement concept of Taqlidi Islam in place of Jamat e Islami or parties like that.
Going forward the question attached with implementation of concept of Ijtahadi Islam favored by Iqbal and Jinnah is to find out the ways that how the consensus can be arrived at. Human history from its beginning has proved time and again that political system always remains subservient to prevailing economic conditions and knowledge base. In Greece and Roman Empire the women and slaves were treated as property and in their democratic way of government they had no rights. Later in Feudal and Mercantile (trading) era the Feudal and Traders were the main beneficiary of political system. With Industrial Revolution the things started changing but in certain areas the women and common man are still under state tyranny. French Revolution was one way of change and Marxist Revaluations were another way of change. Recently the change in Iran and Egypt has set new examples. So we have precedents before us to follow.
Another question is to redefine concept of Pakistani nationalism. Hobbs and Stalin are the architects of defining modern nationalism. To qualify for a nationalist group one should have common language (though dialect changes after each 200 miles), history, culture and some geographical area. According to this Pakistan has four nationalities I, e Sindhi, Punjabi, Pakhtun and Baluch. Than comes Pakistani nationalism. It is combination of all nationalist entities or you can call it Federation. Than comes Islamic brotherhood. It is combination of all Muslims wherever they live. Than comes whole world. It is combination of all ethnic and religious groups. We should have to move from bottom to top as in Quran our Rab is Rabul Almeen i.e. Rab for all. But what we do is to go for choosing a spot of our own choice for moving either side which is wrong and creates confusion. Moreover confusion arises when we demand provinces or states other than national basis. This can be done as in USA, India or other parts of the world but on administrative basis and not on ethnic or language basis to facilitate common man. PML (N) and some parties in Pakistan are demanding further formation of provinces on these basis and rightly so.
In Pakistan to revive Jinnah's and Iqbal thoughts we have to depend on three bodies for the final arbitration on Ijtihad. These three institutions are Parliament (representing National assembly duly elected by the people of Pakistan and Senate), Islamic Ideology Council and Shariat Court. Apart from these three institutions no body from any quarter or Madresah or Sect should be allowed to give their interpretations or final verdict. To make Islamic Ideology Council more representative it should have 60 % representation from Ulemas of all sects and 40% representation from technocrats and market experts. Shariat Court should also be reorganized more in consultation with Chief Justice. Final authority should rest with Parliament. This is how process of Ijtihad can be centralized and made meaningful.
Remember that now we need to revert to Jinnah's and Iqbal's original thoughts to save Pakistan from any tyranny and further destruction.